Child porters, locally called kayaye, work in urban areas and some of them are as young as 6 years. The national legislation on child labour provided here comes from the ILO Natlex database.
A study by Tulane University found that the number of children working in the cocoa industry in and was 51 percent higher than five years earlier. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, This practice fit with one of the five pillars of Islam, the responsibility to engage in zakat, or almsgiving.
Additionally, rural parents do not believe that an education or a diploma of any sort can help their girls find a job. In southern Volta region, children work in religious servitude for a period ranging between few months to three years.
Many of these worked in hazardous conditions and for long hours. Kenyan law prevents access to schools to a child if he or she is unregistered as a citizen with Kenyan authorities.
Colonial British laws, for example, offered the native people ownership to some of the native land in exchange for making labor of wife and children available to colonial government's needs such as in farms and as picannins.
The worst forms of child labour are defined as child labour that is exploitative or hazardous, including all forms of slavery and trafficking. These petites bonnes come from very poor families, face conditions of involuntary servitude, including long hours without breaks, absence of holidays, physical, verbal and sexual abuse, withheld wages and even restrictions on their movement.
Progress against child labour appears to have stalled in Africa.
Agriculture and domestic services are the predominant employers.