The immune system responds to the environmental factors it encounters on the basis of discrimination between self and non-self.
CDC has been shown to be an important mechanism of action of rituximab and depletion of complement in mouse models led to the complete loss of activity of rituximab [ 4 ]. Some newer types are still in clinical trials. The immune system is then in a better position to kill cancer cells.
Their specificity for the target, together with the fact that they are relatively well tolerated and have a long half-life has contributed to their success in drug development.
Abstract Introduction Monoclonal antibody mAb -based products are highly specific for a particular antigen. Introduction Monoclonal antibody-based treatment of cancer has been established as one of the most successful therapeutic strategies for both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors in the last 20 years.
Unconjugated antibodies can induce their therapeutic effect by A blocking the binding of growth factors to growth factor receptor and subsequent cell signalling pathways essential for cell proliferation such as anti-EGFR mAb cetuximab, B blocking and trapping an angiogenic factor such as anti-VEGF mAb Avastin, C preventing growth factor receptor—receptor dimerization and subsequent signal transduction pathways such as anti-HER mAb pertuzumab, D by blocking a key negative regulator of immune activity on T cells such as anti-CTLA-4 mAb ipilimumab, E binding to Fc receptors on effector cells e.
If the desired mechanism of action is engagement with cell surface receptors to either activate or inhibit signalingor to activate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ADCC or complement-dependent cytotoxicity CDCthen it is desirable that the antigen-mAb complex should not be rapidly internalized.
Further many of the checkpoint inhibitors are being developed and some of these are currently under clinical study 4. The novel MABs include the following: i Alemtuzumab which is a humanized IgG1 which targets CD52 and is often overexpressed on malignant lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and natural killer cells.
Table 1 Open in a separate window Antibody engineering and mechanisms of action The development of hybridoma technology led to the first generation of murine antibodies against tumor cell surface antigens.
Introduction The introduction of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of cancer Monoclonal Antibodies mAbs comprise a class of therapeutic biologics that has been increasingly used over the last decades.