An analysis of the role of parents as a source of information about gender stereotypes
Effects of Stereotypes Presented in the Media Research on expectancy-value theory has focused primarily on the influence of parents, teachers, or peers on children's endorsement of stereotypes and their expectancy and value beliefs see Wigfield et al.
The current research measures both prescriptive and descriptive gender stereotypes to answer several questions about their content and magnitude. A meta-analysis by Flore and Wichertsfor instance, found that girls who are reminded of typical gender stereotypes in math exhibit slightly lower math performance compared to girls who are not reminded of such stereotypes.
We considered the clustered structure of the data students nested in classes by using the design-based correction of standard errors implemented in Mplus 7.
The introduction and the math tasks solved by the children were used in both conditions. Overall, boys and men had more restrictive prescriptive stereotypes than girls and women in terms of strength and number.
Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, there is no work that has investigated effects of stereotypes on children's feelings about a domain.
Gender stereotypes experienced in home
Stereotype Threat and Boys' Performance, Motivational Dispositions, and Attitudes Effects of stereotypes on boys' performance, motivational dispositions, and attitudes toward a domain are less clear, as there are only a few studies on such effects and contradictory findings have been reported. This bias is crucial to the larger economy and contributes to gender inequity in income: More women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM would diversify the workforce, and mathematically intensive STEM fields usually provide high-status career options National Science Foundation, Results offer initial insights into how even short segments involving gender stereotypes in television shows can influence girls' and boys' stereotype endorsement and how such stereotypes may constitute one factor that contributes to gender differences in the STEM fields. On the basis of prior research, we expected negative effects of watching the stereotypes on girls' performance, motivational dispositions, and attitudes. Other evidence for a restrictive male stereotype stems from looking at the outcomes of stereotype violation. Men should be agentic, independent, masculine in appearance, and interested in science and technology, but avoid being weak, emotional, shy, and feminine in appearance. Descriptive statistics for all outcome variables at T1 separated by gender and condition. Thus, researchers have not addressed prescriptive stereotypes in the elderly or compared these to stereotypes of young adult or middle-aged men and women. In addition, the video included a clip that implied traditional gender stereotypes in math about 1 min. This included an introduction by a male television presenter about 1 min and two different math tasks solved by fifth-grade children about 13 min. In the experimental condition, participants watched the gender-stereotyped clip. Because we did not preregister the exclusion of the item, we conducted the analysis for this outcome also using the original scale, which included all 10 items. Men can also be the recipients of backlash when they violate prescriptive stereotypes by lacking agency and showing weakness Moss-Racusin et al.
Although most of this research has been conducted on college students or older adults, multiple studies have reported similar effects among children or adolescents e. The mean age of the sample was
based on 2 review